Thursday, July 24, 2014

Minority Scientists and Engineers

Minority Scientists and Engineers  --- SAT students taking test 2008 59.8 white 12.1 black 13.2 hispanic 10.5 asian 0.7   nativeam

Percentile for 700 math white - top 6% black - top 1% hispanic - top 1% Asian - top 19%

 So you would expect relative to whites, blacks and hispanics to be 1/6 and Asian 20 times their SAT taker population at a place like google which generally hires from the top 5%
Tech Workforce Top 6% 
2008 SAT takersOverrepscaledpctgoogle
96.3total28594.8100.00% With the exception of Asians, minorities are a small proportion of scientists and engineers in the United States. Asians were 9 percent of scientists and engineers in the United States in 1993, although they were only 3 percent of the U.S. population. Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians as a group were 23 percent of the U.S. population but only 6 percent of the total science and engineering labor force. [29] Blacks and Hispanics were each about 3 percent, and American Indians were less than 1 percent of scientists and engineers. (See figure 5-1.) doctoral science and engineering labor force, the differences in representation of racial and ethnic groups are greater than is the case within the science and engineering labor force as a whole. Underrepresented minorities are an even smaller proportion of doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States than they are of bachelor's or master's scientists and engineers. Asians were 11 percent of doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States in 1993. Blacks were 2 percent, Hispanics were 2 percent, and American Indians were less than half of 1 percent of doctoral scientists and engineers. (See appendix table 5-33.)
S&E Bachelor's Degrees by Race/Ethnicity. The racial/ethnic composition of S&E bachelor's degree recipients has changed over time, reflecting population changes and increasing college attendance by members of minority groups.[17]Between 2000 and 2009, the proportion of S&E degrees awarded to white students among U.S. citizens and permanent residents declined from 71% to 66%, although the number of S&E bachelor's degrees earned by white students increased during that time (figure 2-15appendix table 2-19). The proportion awarded to Hispanic students increased from 7% to 9% and to Asians/Pacific Islanders from 9% to 10%. The shares to black and American Indian/Alaska Native students have remained flat since 2000. The number of S&E bachelor's degrees earned by students of unknown race/ethnicity also increased.
Despite considerable progress over the past couple of decades for underrepresented minority groups earning bachelor's degrees in any field, the gap in educational attainment between young minorities and whites continues to be wide. The percentage of the population ages 25–29 with bachelor's or higher degrees was 19% for blacks, 12% for Hispanics, and 37% for whites in 2009. These figures changed from 13%, 10%, and 26%, respectively, in 1989 (NCES 2010a). Differences in completion of bachelor's degrees in S&E by race/ethnicity reflect differences in high school completion rates, college enrollment rates, and college persistence and attainment rates. In general, blacks, Hispanics, and American Indian/Alaska Natives are less likely than whites and Asians/Pacific Islanders to graduate from high school, to enroll in college, and to graduate from college. (For information on immediate post-high school college enrollment rates, see chapter 1, "Transition to Higher Education.") Among those who do enroll in or graduate from college, blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives are about as likely as whites to choose S&E fields; and Asians/Pacific Islanders are more likely than members of other racial/ethnic groups to choose these fields. For Asians/Pacific Islanders, almost half of all bachelor's degrees received are in S&E, compared with about one-third of all bachelor's degrees earned by each of the other racial/ethnic groups. However, the proportion of Asians/Pacific Islanders earning degrees in the social sciences is similar to other racial/ethnic groups (appendix table 2-19).
The contrast in field distribution among whites, blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives on the one hand and Asians/Pacific Islanders on the other is apparent within S&E fields as well. White, black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native S&E baccalaureate recipients share a similar distribution across broad S&E fields. In 2009, between 9% and 11% of all baccalaureate recipients in each of these racial/ethnic groups earned their degrees in the natural sciences,[18] 3%–4% in engineering, and 15%–18% in the social and behavioral sciences. Asian/Pacific Islander baccalaureate recipients earned 20% of their bachelor's degrees in natural sciences and 8% in engineering (appendix table 2-19).
For all racial/ethnic groups, the total number of bachelor's degrees, the number of S&E bachelor's degrees, and the number of bachelor's degrees in most S&E fields (with the exception of computer sciences) has generally increased since 2000 (appendix table 2-19). Across all racial/ethnic groups, the number of degrees in computer sciences increased considerably through 2003–04 and then sharply declined through 2008. Except for Asians/Pacific Islanders, whose numbers in computer sciences continued to fall in 2009, the decline in other racial/ethnic groups stabilized. In the case of Hispanics, the number of computer science degrees awarded increased.
Bachelor's Degrees by Citizenship. Since 2000, students on temporary visas in the United States have consistently earned a small share (3%–4%) of S&E degrees at the bachelor's level. These students earned a larger share of bachelor's degrees awarded in economics and in electrical and industrial engineering in 2009 (about 9%). The number of S&E bachelor's degrees awarded to students on temporary visas increased from about 15,200 in 2000 to about 18,800 in 2004, and then declined to 17,100 in 2009 (appendix table 2-19). googledoc
See table

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